A while ago, I wrote about what I called the telepathy meme — the tenacious idea that ayahuasca opens telepathic communication with others in the group, or allows one to see events that are distant in time or space. This latter is, of course, consistent with the Upper Amazonian idea that ayahuasca is not itself a healer but rather a teacher, which is ingested in order to get information.

Apparently it was a traveler named Rafael Zerda Bayón who first suggested, in 1905, both the idea that ayahuasca visions were telepathic and the corresponding name telepathine for its active constituent. The name was then used by the Colombian chemist Guillermo Fischer Cárdenas when he actually isolated the compound in 1923. In 1939, it was determined that banisterine, yagéine, and telepathine were all the same as harmine, and that is the name that has been used ever since.

I originally thought that the meme then lay quiescent until resurrected in 1953 by American writer William S. Burroughs in his early novel Junky, where, in his closing meditation on yagé, the “uncut kick,” the “final fix,” he noted that the drink “is supposed to increase telepathic sensitivity.”

But apparently the telepathy meme was less dormant than I thought. In the April 1932 issue of Modern Mechanics is a very brief and unattributed article that says, in its entirety:

Drug Said to Cause Clairvoyance
A South American plant called Yage is believed by natives to have the magical property of enabling the drinker to see great distances or through obstacles. Before the drinker falls asleep everything seems to be filled with hazy bluish rings. As the stupor deepens the sleeper sees vivid visions of things or people known to be somewhere else. This is the reason the drug is supposed to cause clairvoyance.

This brief article is skeptical in tone, gives no author, and provides no source for the information it conveys. I have been able to dig up no further information, although I certainly wonder whether this may be one of the sources that informed Burroughs’s view of ayahuasca. Can anyone add anything?

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17 Responses to “The Telepathy Meme Again”

  1. Chuntaro says:

    I knew you were going to write about this today!
    I just knew it! :)

  2. Carla says:

    I found some information that might be helpful.

    There is an article that was published in the Apr 23, 1932 issue of Science News Letter titled: “DRUG MADE FROM INDIAN PLANT PRODUCES MOVIELIKE VISIONS”
    http://blog.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/2674/titleScience_Past__From_the_April_23,_1932,_issue

    It could be that the article published in the April issue of Modern Mechanics was just a summary of the article in Science News Letter of that same month.

    Also this is interesting.

    “In 1923, a film of Indian yage ceremonies was shown at the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Other noteworthy
    publications drawing attention to the effects of this drink came from Rusby and White, who observed yage practices in Bolivia in 1322, from
    the Russians Varnoff and Jezepezuk, who did Colombian fieldwork in 1925-1926,and from Morton, who in 1931 published Klug’s southern Colombian notes about Banisteriopsis inebrians.”

    http://diseyes.lycaeum.org/fresh/encycay.htm-

    Guillermo Klug is mentioned in both the Apr 23, 1932 article in Science News Letter and in the excerpt above. Although I do not know who the russians, Varnoff and Jezepezuk, were it might be interesting to look more closely at their work. I don’t know if they had any influence on the telepathy meme but there may be a connection to the russian interest in telepathy and the paranormal and research being done in the 1920′s.

  3. Steve Beyer says:

    Carla, Thank you so much for this really interesting and helpful information.

  4. Name: Asier says:

    it is not hard to run a controlled experiment on this topic… when do we start? :D

  5. Steve Beyer says:

    Asier, it is good to hear from you. Good parapsychological research is in fact very difficult to do. My teacher and friend Stanley Krippner has written an excellent review article on studies of psychoactive substances and parapsychological experiences, which is worth taking a look at. Krippner refers to “methodological problems that are obvious to readers of these reports.” Yet Krippner believes that the studies he reviewed, besides being open to criticism, “are of value for what they can teach investigators about research design, about the phenomenology of the experimental sessions, and the possible neurological mechanisms of putative parapsychological experiences.” Like all of Krippner’s work, the article is thorough, comprehensive, and really interesting.

  6. Anonymous says:

    The book from Dr. Guillermo Fischer, (he was the first scientist to analyze the compound) describes the clinical effects of the drug on people. From these descriptions, especially when he describes the “dreams” they had, you can deduce that one individual had a “telepathic experience”. The book is hard to find, there is one copy at the Library in Washington and there is another one at the National University of Colombia… (Perhaps there are more?) William S. Burroughs, read his scientific studies and that’s how he got interested on it. In the 1980s the Anthropological department of the NYU made some studies in Colombia about the “telepathic” effects of this drug. Perhaps you can contact also the NYU.

  7. Steve Beyer says:

    That is wonderfully helpful. Thank you. I will follow up. Does Burroughs anywhere specifically mention Fischer?

  8. Anonymous says:

    Yes, Burroughs went to the city of Popayan, looking for Dr. Fischer who was head of the Medicine Dept. at the University. Unfortunately, Fischer wasn’t there at the time and he spent some time in the city, trying to meet some intellectuals but he found none. This part of the story was published on the book “The Yage Letters”. Burroughs mentioned him on another letters that were not published. Perhaps, someone who owns or posseses the state of Allen Ginsberg has the letters.

  9. Steve Beyer says:

    Thank you again for all this truly useful information.

  10. Ale says:

    Guillermo Fischer is (was) my Grandfather! ;-)

  11. Steve Beyer says:

    I am constantly amazed at the wonderful things I find out from comments on this blog. It is definitely a small planet. :-) And I really like your sketches. Thank you so much for joining us.

  12. Gary Mack says:

    Another interesting reference to this meme. When harmine was first isolated from Ayahuasca vine in 1923 it was named Telepathine. Later is was shown to be a well know alkaloid that had been isolated from Peganum harmala seeds (Syrian Rue) in 1847.
    For the scholarly geeks: Check out page 200 of Jonathon Ott’s most excellent tome, Pharmacotheon.

  13. Oliver says:

    I just discovered your site and work. Thank you for sharing your journey.
    I am somewhat surprised that there is not more reflection on the esoteric schools of yoga and buddhism as a means to consider the various alternative states under Ayahuasca. What the yogis say and what my own experience holds up is that on the casual level, the level of the blue pearl, (the hazy blue rings spoken of in the 1932 article on yage) one enters into telepathic communication, or rather spontaneous alliance with what is. This image of what has been termed the blue pearl is represented thoughout hindu and buddhist iconography. The centre of the blue pearl is illuminated with white light. The light is what gives meaning or reality to the colours. It would also seem to me that the level of the spirits though profoundly real as a subjective experience is on the level of the astral plane, a dimension of existence that is necessarily one of dynamic and illusionary change — the psychic junkyard of the endless. Now I know this language is apparently old hat, tainted by the shenanigans of the new age movement and the older group of theosophists, but nevertheless the foundational knowledge of the yogic shouldn’t be ignored in regards to these questions. Soma Rules — imho ; – )

    Oh, should mention that the blue pearl is seen at the ajna centre. The third eye. It is the third eye.

  14. Jimson says:

    I have combined mushrooms with harmala seeds, and ended up in a conversation with a spirit, which I believe is my spirit with all its strangeness and familiarity attached to it. The conversation starts out quiet telepathically, with me hearing a voice guiding me towards it, until I am in a live-chat modus, where I get to ask questions and having them answered.

    So I get this feeling of entering a world of spiritism when I use entheogens and the most eager spirit to talk through me, is my own soul. I recognize a kindness and warmth in my spirit, and I want that in my life. The meditative state I recieve from the harmala seeds, I believe are what grants me “the knowledge and conversation of my guardian angel.”

    Once I was flying through visions in hyperspace
    When a girl with ponytails approached me on a scooter
    and asked me if this was my second journey on space ship Harmala.
    She knew the answer to that I guess, but I answered yes, anyway.
    She smiled and speeded up ahead of me.
    I followed her down into a beautiful brick road leading into a city.

  15. Mike says:

    I’m a little late to this thread, but if anyone’s still reading I have details of a recently discovered ‘Report on Yage’ from 1927. It’s by Edward Morrell Holmes (a botanist and pharmacist remembered for his correspondence with Darwin) and it refers to conversations initiated by the novelist Rider Haggard:
    “…about a South American drug ‘causing clairvoyant and telepathic effects’, to the identification of the drug, and to the writer’s attempts at trial with a tincture prepared by W.H. Martindale (1875?-1933) on ‘some of our leading scientific Spiritualists … including Sir A. Conan Doyle, Professor (Sir) Oliver Lodge, & Sir (W.) F. Barrett.’”
    So it seems the ‘telepathine meme’ was quite widespread, and pushed by some familiar names (who may indeed have sampled ayahuasca) in the 1920s.
    The report is in the Wellcome Library in London. I shall try and check it out next week. In the meantime I’ve done a short URL for the catalogue listing:
    http://tinyurl.com/3248bjj
    Any thoughts gratefully (if not telepathically) received…

  16. Steve Beyer says:

    Thank you for that really interesting information. And now, of course, the question arises: Did Doyle share any of this tincture with Houdini? :-)

  17. juan Fischer says:

    He was a Doctor, not a chemist! He was my grandfather. We have his original unpublished thesis written for his Doctor’s degree. The essay is absolutely beautiful and enjoyable!


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